Maryland
Geography
external image maryland_map.gif

Maryland is bordered by Pennsylvania on the north and by Chesapeake Bay and a small piece of Virginia on the south. On the east, Maryland is bordered by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean. West Virginia and Virginia border Maryland on the west (“The Geography of Maryland”).
The main geographic features are the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Region, Appalachian Ridge and Valley, and the Appalachian Plateau. From the northeastern tip of Maryland, the plain extends south and west across Maryland almost to Washington, D.C. near the Virginia border. The Piedmont cuts through central Maryland and it is marked by low rolling landscapes and fertile lands. In Maryland, the Blue Ridge is represented by a narrow, mountainous section of land between the Piedmont and the Maryland section of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley is the northern strip of land that separates West Virginia from Pennsylvania. To the west of the Blue Ridge is the Appalachian Plateau. There is many harbors in Maryland such as Annapolis Harbor, Dutch Harbor, Herrington harbor, and Rock Hall Harbor. The majority of Maryland’s farmland is located in the north central part of the state and the upper eastern shore. Maryland is well suited to large scale farming. It is very wealthy in money crops such as rice, tobacco, and indigo (The Geography of Maryland).
Maryland was well- suited to large scale farming because of its warm climate. Maryland’s geography affected its social structure in which plantation owners were at the top. Cash crops such as indigo, rice, and tobacco helped them become wealthy (ABC CLIO "Regional Development of the Colonies”).

History

Maryland was colonized in1634 (Kelly, Martin).

The earliest Europeans to come to Maryland were the Spanish in 1574 and fur traders from Virginia.Purtians took charge of the colony from 1644 to 1646. Europeans came from Spain and England. They came for religious freedom. Maryland was a political, economic, and religious colony (ABC CLIO “Maryland”).
There were Native Americans living in the region. Among Maryland’s earliest people were hunters who came more than 10,000 years ago. The area was occupied by Algonquian-speaking people such as the Conoy and Patuxent who occupied the Chesapeake Bay. The Choptank, Nanticoke, Assateague, and Pocomoke tribes lived on the eastern shore and the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannans lived near theSusquehanna River (ABC CLIO "Maryland").

Economics

The colonists were hunters and scavengers. They used the nearby rivers for access to food and the Fertile Crescent to plant crops. The principal form of commerce was farming and trade. There was slavery in Maryland in 1642 when it was first colonized. It was abolished in 1864 while the Civil War was still going on (ABC CLIO
"Maryland").

Social

They spoke mostly English and some French. The religious affiliation for Maryland was Presbyterian, Catholic, and Episcopalian.
(“Religious Affiliation of the Senators and the Representatives in the First Unites States Congress”).

The role of women was to help their husbands to gather produce, hunt livestock, and plant crops (“American History” ABC CLIO).

Political

Maryland was given a Proprietary charter. Proprietary rights were exclusive. It made it hard to recruit soldiers. Also, a proprietary that was absolute could make his own laws. When the government of Maryland was established they were against England. Maryland developed both a democratic and republican government known as the Whig Party (“Regional Development of the Colonies”).

Terms

  • Triangle Trade: affected the colonies because New England would not let them trade directly which made them feel it wouldn’t be as profitable.
  • Salutary Neglect: Salutary neglect allowed Great Britain to be cut off from trade the colonies which helped them become independent. In 1649, the Maryland Toleration Act was passed to protection religious freedom. Colonists did not feel the control or power of the British government under salutary neglect. (“What is Salutary Neglect?).
  • Mercantilism: Tobacco became accountable to mercantilist laws. Tobacco influenced taxes, debts, and wages (“Geography of Maryland” ABC CLIO”)
  • Great Awakening: Twelve Presbyterian churches existed in Maryland by the 1799s. (“The Great Awakening”).
  • Cash Crops: One of the major cash crops produced in Maryland was tobacco. Cash crops were exported to other countries and this helped Maryland become a wealthy colony (“Geography of Maryland” ABC CLIO).


Road to Revolution
French and Indian War-

Some Indian tribes that took part in the French and Indian War were the Nanticokes, Choptanks, Pocomokes, and Wicomicos. During the French and Indian War a lot of settlers were killed. Many settlers fled their homes and farms in search of safer areas to live. After England won the war most settlers did not return to their homes. There were more Loyalists than Patriots in Maryland (“Loyalist American Revolution”).

Revolution

Maryland made contributions to the Revolution by supplying men, arms, and ships. American Loyalists opposed the Revolution (Loyalists During the American Revolution”). Maryland's reaction to the increasingly demanding British policies of the 1760s and early 1770s was more controlled than other colonies, due largely to delayed arguing between popular and proprietary forces. There was little time left over to worry about politics. Maryland did not support the Constitution (“Maryland and the American Revolution”).

Works Cited

The Geography of Maryland 29 Sept. 2010<.http://www.netstate.com/states/geography/md_geography.htm>.

"Regional Development of the Colonies (Overview)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. http://americanhistory.abc-clio.com/
. Kelly, Martin. About.com Maryland Colony 29 Sept. 2010.http://americanhistory.about.com/cs/colonialamerica/p/marylandcolony.htm
"Maryland." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. http://americanhistory.abc-clio.com/
Religious Affiliation of the Senators and the Representatives in the First Unites States Congress. 29 Sept. 2010.
http://www.adherents.com/gov/congress_001.html

“What is Salutary Neglect?” 30 Sept. 2010.http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-salutary-neglect.htm

The Great Awakening. 30 Sept.2010.http://www.christianchronicler.com/history1/great_awakening.html.

“Loyalist (American Revolution).” 30 Sept.2010. http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/loyalist-american-revolution-/.

“Loyalists During the American Revolution” 1 Oct. 2010.http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-33.htm

“Maryland and the American Revolution.” http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h619.html
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